Historical Milestones, Periods and Consequences
The long 19th century brought about a shift from servitude to citizenship, from absolutism to constitutionalism, from agrarian society to industrial society and new civilizational trends. The historical milestones traditionally include military and political history. The revolutionary years of 1848/1849 brought a significant turning point in the political, economical and social development of the Czech Lands, the Habsburg Monarchy and the whole of Europe.
The modern 20th century history was an epoch in the shadow of both world wars that heavily affected it. The disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 resulted in the emergence of new successor states including the Czechoslovak Republic. The Nazi aggression against Czechoslovakia at the end of the 1930s resulted in the Second World War. It brought Nazi aggression and resistance against it to the Czech Lands. After the defeat of Germany in 1945, the Czechoslovak independence was re-established and the war criminals were punished. However, the aggressive seizure of power by the communists in the form of a communist coup in February 1948 caused another reversal, which buried Czechoslovak parliamentary democracy for more than 40 years. The ease in the society at the end of the 1960s was broken by intervention of the Warsaw Pact armies in 1968 and arrival of the so-called normalisation. The growing resistance against the communist regime culminated in the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and return of the democratic system.
Velvet Revolution, 1 December 1989. Wikimedia Commons. Accessible here.
historians: Daniela Králíková, Pavel Cibulka, Jitka Močičková, Jan Němeček, Jiří Padevět, Eva Semotanová, Zlatica Zudová-Lešková
cartographers: Petra Jílková, Jakub Havlíček, Tomáš Janata, Kristýna Ledecká, Pavel Seemann, Petr Soukup, Růžena Zimová
digital atlas: Petra Jílková, Jiří Krejčí, Jitka Močičková, Eva Semotanová, Růžena Zimová
team of authors
Dejmek, J. a kol.: Československo. Dějiny státu. Praha 2018.;
Gebhart, J., Kuklík, J.: Velké dějiny zemí Koruny české, sv. XVa., XVb., Praha 2005, 2006.;
Kárník, Z.: České země v éře První republiky, díl I-III, Praha 2017-2018.
Semotanová, E. ‒ Cajthaml, J. a kol.: Akademický atlas českých dějin. Praha 2014, 2. akt. vydání 2016.;
Seemann, P. – Bláha, J., D. a kol.: Český historický atlas. Kapitoly z dějin 20. století. Praha 2019.